Artificial Intelligence / Loebner Prize

In today’s lecture we were taken by a Professor Paul McKevvit whilst our nomal lecturer was in London. He began the lecture by talking about artificial intelligence. When we look at artificial intelligence as it is portrayed in the movies, from films such as Blade Runner, where bio-engineered humanoids called Replicants have become so self-aware that they revolted against humans and as a result are made illegal, these machines had become so life like that the only way to tell them apart from the humans was to use an emotional response test to gauge lack of emotion compared to that of a human. In the film “The Terminator”,where a cyborg is sent back through time with one mission, to kill Sarah Connor, in these films the Artificial Intelligence system known as Skynet has gained sentiency and taken control of the world’s technology, these 80’s movies AI is much more advanced than even today’s technologies, as creating a physical machine that both looks human and acts human is a lot more difficult than made out. We may not have cyborgs revolting yet but we still have had massive advancements in this field in recent years. Paul told us about the Loebner Prize, this is an annual competition that tests the advancement of Artificial Intelligence systems based on their ability to fool human judges into believing that it is not a machine and actually a human instead. To date the only medal that has been awarded is Bronze as no AI has been successful enough to fool all the Judges. There are other one time only prizes in this competition that have never been won such as the $25,000 prize for the first chatterbot that can successfully fool the Judges into believing it is a human and also convince the Judges that the Human is the machine. A $100,000 reward is offered to the first AI that the Judges cannot distinguish from a real human in a Turing test. This year the Loebner prize was held at the University of Ulster and the winner of the 2013 competition, taking home the bronze medal was a chatterbot called Mitsuku. Created by Steve Worswick, this AI claims to be an 18 year old female from Leeds; this AI is different from the rest as it has the ability to correct the things it says, this means that if the user informs Mitsuku that it gave an incorrect answer then it will have the competency to fixthe answer. The Turing test used in the Loebner prize comes from that of Alan Turing, a computer scientist who is considered the father of artificial intelligence. In World War II, Turing worked for the Government code and cypher school at Bletchley Park, the codebreaking centre of Britain. Turing led the way in developing techniques for breaking German ciphers and improvements to the electromechanical machine used to find settings for the enigma machine. If we look at it this way we can see that from Turing’s work on the Enigma machine to modern day Artificial Intelligence systems is a clear sign that AI is moving forward at a fast rate and who knows, in a few years perhaps someone will finally take the gold in the Loebner Prize.



Short Film/Video Art

Today we are looking at the relationship/differences between short film and video art.

A good short film includes the audience. It makes the viewer create a person  opinion on the character maybe even go as far as care and make a relationship with the character.

In class we were shown a number of short films and asked our opinion on them. The first film was called  ‘Useless Dog’

This five minute film is about a farmer talking about his dog, how it is stupid or ‘useless’ and how he is fond of his dog regardless.  The music in the film is quite upbeat and light hearted and the opening shot is at “dog level”  the audience gets up close and personal with the main character (which in this case is the dog.) the shots of the dog going about its playful everyday business helps the audience quickly form a relationship with the dog. When the commentary from the dog’s owner starts the audience see’s a close up of the owner in his own everyday surroundings, the audience only see’s the man’s face on screen and due to the shot, the simple/loving nature the owner speaks about his four legged companion it is easy for the audience to feel the emotion of this man’s love for his useless dog.  The use of close ups, sound, language, animals and light hearted humour really help the audience identify with the film and make it memorable.

Another short film the class watched was called Fisticuffs . what happened in this short film shows a series of fights between people in a pub which is repeated through the whole of the film, during which the other people in the pub take no notice to the ciaos and destruction which is being caused due to the violence around them. The message in this short film is about the  Irish drinking culture, how drunken violence is normalised. The film shows alot or repetition because no matter what the main character does he always ends up in a fight. The fight scene is the entire film, some bits of the film are enactments’ of fight scenes in other films. What makes the film memorable is the violence and destruction but it left the audience wondering what the message was and somewhat bored as the same thing was happening for so long. It could be argued that the very point of the long dragged out repetition of the scene is to show that this type of thing keeps happening in everyday life but we choose to ignore it.

Short films must be carefully planned through storyboards etc. The film must capture the audience and distribute its message in a certain way.

Video Art is something that does not have a narrative, the message may not necessarily be the first thing you think it is. The director chooses what is seen and what message is to be shown or even kept hidden. Video art is more about the visual than the narrative, how emotion is created visually not by sound. Also video are is about skills, how the video is edited, shot etc.

Willie Doherty is one of Northern Ireland’s best documentary photographers . He witnessed bloody Sunday as a child and various other atrocities during the Troubles. Growing up he felt that things that were being documented in history may not be the truth and other things that should be documented where not being documented at all. Doherty took it upon himself to document what was going on. Alot of his early work is about absence, he took still images of unapproved roads to support this.


Willie Doherty work hits the emotional level as he is creating art on such a topic as The Troubles in Northern Ireland, what makes it so powerful is the fact he is from Northern Ireland himself. He has a firsthand experience on what was going on in the country at the time. Doherty brings the emotion to such a high level  he can capture the audience and make them really think about the atrocities which have happened in such a small country using firsthand experience  and people who have witnessed certain events. For example Willie Doherty unseen, a moving image of a burning car with a voice over  of people who have been kneecapped by paramilitaries’.  This type of work really plays with the emotions from the audience, someone sharing their memories of something horrific that has happened to them.

One of Doherty’s most famous pieces is called re-run it is a moving image shot on two screens. It is of a man running in each direction this is why there are two screens for each direction. The audience can see a close up of the man’s face they can see his facial expression the look of anguish and fear.





Exhibition Getting the Message out!

In this lecture we discussed various methods of getting your work out there. This ranges from things like Museums or galleries to pop-up exhibits and public art works. Some of these things like Museums and Galleries are not as significant as they used to be and in today’s society can lose some of the importance they once held through our past.

However first we must ask ourselves, what do people want? What does our audience want to see?

Well as a generality, art of course, but as we know there are many different entities that are considered forms of art today. From traditional Paintings, drawings, to dance, music and the performing arts, it’s all about what people want to see! What they want to express, but how?

See in the past when a person wanted a drawing or a painting of theirs to get some notoriety, they would hang in it in a gallery and gauge other peoples responses, and while there are still many galleries for the aspiring artists to hang their pieces, such as pop up galleries, but the number of these are dropping all the time with the advancement of the digital age.

In the modern world, if you want to view art you can simply go on the internet and do a search, once you have seen a piece of art online that’s all there is to it, right? Well not necessarily.

With doing everything digitally nowadays we lose the ability to have emotional connections with some of the pieces that would evoke different reactions had we seen them in person.

Museums are losing out also as people see the historic events and items there as outdated, funnily enough? I have heard people complain that museums are too old fashioned and need updated with the times. But doesn’t that defy the purpose of a museum, does that mean we are supposed to swap in viewings of the Neanderthal man for a viewing of a Retro computer that plays Pac-Man. The reason these places have lasted till now is because of their significance in showing artifiacts that inspire the viewer on a personal level. Surely yes you can go to Google and do a search of the bones of a Tyrannosaurus Rex, but you will never have the same feeling as you would in seeing them in person and realising just how grand they are.

The Rijksmuseum in the Netherlands recently went through changes in order to keep up with ever growing need for more interactivity in its museum by having exhibitions where the user can digitally engage with the artwork, such as zoom-able images that can be liked, saved or posted to social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter. You could claim that this is all the same as going online yourself but the key difference is that the Rijksmuseum actually owns all of the artwork that it presents.

The point I’m trying to make is that no matter what your method of expression may be, or no matter which form of art you may choose to express, whether in galleries or museums, or simply just online, we need to get our art work out there. It sure isn’t going to by itself, and only by creating demand can we keep our museums and galleries at our forefront of exhibits.

Finally we still always have the option of self-publishing something. If you have a book or a story idea and you want to get it out there, you don’t have to wait until a publisher picks you from out of the blue as the new JK Rowling or JRR Tolkien, there are still always the means to do so by yourself; e-publishing has become a big trend in recent years with websites like allowing people to publish their works and acquiring their own sponsorships or advertising they can get known and get their work on a public level.

Turkish Cinema History Aesthetics,politics

Murat Akser was our substitute teacher for today, he was here to talk to the class about Turkish Cinema History. Murat started off by explaining how it was a revolution which instigated the spread of cinema in Turkey. At the start of this cinematic revolution there was no culture in film as there was no sound, yes that’s right at the beginning of film making there was only a visual to what was happening on screen.  When watching a silent film the audience had to look closely to the characters body language or read text of the screen to figure out what the character is saying and or what is going on. In some instances a live band would be playing in the actual cinema to the moving images to introduce sound to an otherwise silent piece of film art, this creates emotional depth from the audience.  To make a silent film successful  in Turkey it must have common ground so that everyone no matter what part of turkey they are from could understand and want to go see the film- boosts ratings. In the early 20’s there was not much to do for relaxation and leisure time so the more people  who enjoyed/understood the film would pay to go see it and at that time the film may be broadcast and seen many times by the same people as the production on new films where slow.

Turkish cinema started to take off in 1928 with the introduction to sound in film. Cinema became more cultured with language (the audience could now hear the character speaking, they could hear the tone and accent of the character, they could distinguish where the character was from in Turkey) The use of National symbols, colours and visuals to remind the audience off the country. Turkish national pride and history was always the message to the audience .   The first films where usually taken from Turkish books/literature and historical events. For example  the 1914 destruction of a Russian monument in Istanbul is regarded as Turkeys first film. This documentary film was created by  the countries first Muslim film maker  Fuat Uzkinay.

What is Turkish Cinema?

  • National  Cinema- The message is National pride.
  • History-The message is to remember Turkeys great victories mainly, some losses but remember what the country has been through in history and be proud of your country.
  • Institutions.
  • Themes-storylines.
  • Genres.

In the early years from 1922-1940’s Mushsin Ertuğeul was the sole director that shot feature films for this period.

1922 saw the establishment of the one first film production company ‘s in the Republic of Turkey, Kemal Seden  founded kemal Films, there was also Ipek films.

As there was little money about film makers had to fund the production for films out of their own pocket. This proved to be a bad idea for some directors lost everything due to not making back the money they invested into making the film. Directors and film makers need to be sure the film is going to sell to ensure they do not go bankrupt.

1950’s- said to be the film makers era, film language is formed.

1960’s-Directors and movements, the Turkish national cinema movement.

1970’s- The introduction to colour on screen, TRT established and the addition of the porn craze.

1974= The first regular BBC broadcasts where shown.

1980’s- TV and video age people no longer want to go to the cinema as they can just stay at home and watch their TV at home.

1990’s- Death of Green Pine cinema.

1997-Birth of New Turkish Cinema.

2000- trends, transnationalism, internationalism. Festival cinema vs. Popular cinema.

Institutions (film production companies etc)

  • Green Pine/ yesilcam
  • Stars
  • Region system  ( certain areas of Turkey will be shown certain things)
  • Bond system (borrowing money to make a film)
  • Directors for hire.
  • Domesticated scripts (i.e. a story from another country is re-scripted to make it Turkish)
  • Working with genre.

Aesthetics/Principle Genres

  • Melodrama- city and women.
  • Historical/Adventure-Turks as civilised people
  • Science Fiction-morality vs. Technology
  • Parody- old is good, recycle.

New Turkish Cinema

  • Memory and Trauma.
  • Alienation.
  • City.
  • Nostalgia.
  • Childhood.
  • Festival Art Cinema.

Popular Cinema

  • Horror (Islamic)
  • Patriotic Films, Breath and valley of wolves.
  • Hobo Comedy-recep ivedik atayilmaz.
  • Youth Comedy-Crazy class
  • Melodrama- Cagan Irmak
  • Auterism- Sinan Cetin.
  • Ethnic- My Marlon and Brando Muro


  •  A Dry Summer -1964
  • Distant- 2002
  • Head On – 2004
  • Tides and Winds- 2006.

The Mobile Visual Environment

From black and white to colour, from encyclopaedia to Wikipedia  we have entered the digital age  it is no longer the revolution as technology has advanced to become a part of everyday life.  We have come a long way from the Motorola DynaTAC, dial up connection, and the Whole Earth Catalogue.  We are now at a time where people have phones smaller  than the palm of your hand , high speed fibre optic wireless broadband, even phones today have constant access to the internet with speeds that put dialup to shame. The Whole Earth Catalogue is now Google, and even Google itself has advanced dramatically in the recent years, its innovation has inspired the product Google Glass which allows people access the uses of Google on the move. People can follow maps, browse the web and even use voice activated commands to take pictures and record notes whilst completing their day to day tasks. From the first computer appropriately named “Colossus”, which took up the majority of a building, and was used in the war simply to perform tasks such as code-breaking, we now have tablet devices such as the Galaxy Note, the Nexus 7 or the iWannatakeyourmoneypad (iPad) which allows us to achieve even greater significant feats such as the ability to shoot small birds at coloured pigs for maximum score. Full working computers have also reached the size of a credit card with the invention of the Raspberry Pi, an ingenious but compact computer fit to carry out all of the functions as a standard desktop only 10 years ago. With the digital age evolving so has Computer Gaming, games in the 70’s and 80’s such as Pong, Asteroids and Tetris are considered Retro or Antique in today’s society as we now live in an age where the idea of gaming is a Worldwide online environment where people are infinitely connected to other people who are also playing these games. Xbox Live, Playstation Network and games such as World of Warcraft have entirely constructed virtual worlds where people can interact, socialise and generally have the craic with friends. We now have seen new technologies such as the 3D printer which allows something that can be created digitally on a computer for example, to become a reality. If you can design it, it can be created in 3D. While this may allow us to open a new world of possibilities, it can take away from the personal care and attention that  a human would put into handcrafting products. An item such as a 3D printer is very expensive at the minute but with the rate that we are moving forward it is only a matter of time till a 3D printer becomes a household standard. However with great technology, comes great stupidity, by this I mean people become more dependent on technology and lose the ability to think for themselves and make choices based on reality rather than technology. When the Sat-Nav became popular and road users got on to this technological advancement, they also lost their common sense and when the device had bugs such as confusing some major rivers as roads, a number of natural-selection candidates where not able to use their own vision and blindly followed the technology’s advice which was not very useful at the bottom of a river. With the advancement of things like social networking we also have a noticeable decline in our privacy as people can frequently see what we are up to, where we are going or have been, or  even know what you had for breakfast this morning. This is very different to the way things were not only 20 years ago where the home landline was the only method of communicating with people you were not immediately with. Information you share online is not only seen by the people you are “Friends” with online but is also held by large date collection companies such as the NSA. Technology is so common in everyday life now that children from the ages of 2-3 have access to these tablets, this allowance is causing long term psychological effects.


Dr Graham said that young technology addicts experienced the same withdrawal symptoms as alcoholics or heroin addicts, when the devices were taken away.

He warned that the condition prevented young people from forming normal social relationships, leaving them drained by the constant interaction.

You could argue all day about the pros and cons of advances in digital technology, but the long and short of it is, we ARE moving forward, at an alarming rate at that. So it’s sink or swim, keep up to date or fall behind like the senior citizens we try to teach internet to, but technology will keep moving on, as innovation waits for nobody.

Big Data- The new Revolution

“Everything that can be counted does not necessarily count. Everything that counts, cannot necessarily be counted.” Albert Einstein.

You are being sold! Using free public wifi which has limited or no security enables a third party to access and collect your personal data. Your data is then constantly being sold through many companies which monitor your internet usage, for example if you are online shopping on Ebay and you look up a various amount of products you will receive unwanted spam to your email address in relation to the various products that where clicked upon. Every webpage and link clicked upon is being monitored. Google stores any website that’s been viewed for up to six weeks, so bear in mind what you are looking at on the internet because Google is watching! Google receives approximately two million searches per minute.  It is always advisable to use a private internet source. C-T net  is the internet source used by the students of the Ulster University, it is a walled garden which means only the people signed up/ go to the university can use the internet source and therefore personal data is not being sold onto a third party.

We live in a world where everything we do, everywhere we go is being virtually monitored.  The NSA in California has a tighter grasp on peoples personal data especially post 9/11. After the terrorist attack in America peoples phone calls are monitored for specific buzz words, for example if a certain buzz word is said in a phone call that phone call and person speaking is flagged for investigation.   We could look into the UK  Leveson  enquiry where a number of high ranking figures had their phones tapped by the News of the World to get stories, which lead to the downfall of Rupert Murdoch.  We can see how peoples personal data is very important not just to companies wishing to spam your inbox everyday but to big corporations such as the new/media  and mainly the worlds governments.

Technology has evolved so much so that even a fridge can be bought internet included. There are so many devices that have GPS tracker included or can be downloaded onto the device.  Four square is a free app that can be downloaded onto your phone and everywhere you go and everything you do is uploaded to Facebook. Everyone on your friends list and those who are not know where you are and what you are doing, so do not be surprised if you go on holiday and come home to find your house has been burgled. Approximately two thousand four square check ins are posted every minute.   People upload so much personal data (approximately  six hundred and eighty-four thousand bits of data per day) onto Facebook  and other social networking sites. Once it is on the site it cannot be removed even if it is deleted by the user a digital finger print is now in place. If you take a look at your friends list on Facebook how many are your actual friends whom you see and speak to on a regular basis? Now look at how many randomers  are left behind, do you know these people? Do you really want your personal information to be seen by these strangers not to mention the NSA again.




On the other hand sometimes collected data is not necessarily a bad thing. For example during the swine flu outbreak of 2009 the government where desperately trying to figure out where the next outbreak of the flu will appear. Google tried to help with this task, maybe offering help so the government will turn a blind eye to those virtually none existent taxes they pay. The search engine was able to identify where the next outbreak would appear. Google was able to acquire the information due to people searching their symptoms online then the company narrowed down the search to which specific area had the most searches. Unfortunately the government thought they knew best and did not listen. This use of data could of been very helpful to the government if they had of listened .  The data maturity spectrum is the efficient use of data and the potential for big data. If data is used correctly and maturely data lead decision making as mentioned above can be a positive thing it can help people.  People use the data to make decisions to think small a device for example a phone which tells the user what the weather is like outside they can make the decision whether or not to put on a coat or not.

What is happening to data from closed and controlled towards open and complex.

  • Volume
  • Variety
  • Velocity

Big Data “a loose term which is commonly used to mean the increasing volume, velocity and variety of data created by digital technology, and in particular, the amount of data which arises from the scaling effects of digital networks” (P.Moore, A Lilley)

The Volume, Variety and velocity of data is a big factor for when the data is being analyzed or managed.

Big data offers the opportunity for analysis  and future planning.

Big Data offers three new possibilities’

  1. We can analyse both the macro and the granular.
  2. We can both curate and measure.
  3. We can move from causality to identification of pattern and correlation. i.e. infographics/ information graphics. These are images which visually show statistics and other data.


Sound Materiality

Sound is created when an object vibrates and the vibrations travel through the air until someone can hear the sound. It is a big part of our lives and media.  Sound in moving image is very important as it can set the mood and theme. Certain sounds can create feelings of  suspense, fear, joy etc the audience hears the sound and it captures the emotion .  A moving image without sound does not have the same effect/impact on the audience as a moving image with sound would have.  Sound effects are not always as they seem for example the sound of bats flying can be made by opening and closing an umbrella in a rapid motion also the sound of a blow to the head can be made by beating  with a blunt object a frozen water melon with crackers glued to it. The mind has its own idea of what something sounds like which may not be the actual sound.  Foley  is the name of artificial sound effects like the ones mentioned above.  A famous example is the film Saving Private Ryan. The scene where the tanks can be heard coming towards the characters  where created  by two thousand students in a car park dragging metal trays along the ground.

The body and mind are not easily dichotomised, which means that they cannot be split, they work in sync with each other. This is why physical sound such as clubbing can make a person’s heart beat fast due to the vibrations of the sound and a heavy bass.

Sound and Perspective

Figure- is the most important melody/sound or the voice of the person singing the lyrics to the music.

Ground- The audience/public/customers/listeners/social world. i.e. the people who listen to the sound.

Field-  The physical world around the listener. i.e. the surroundings/place the listener/audience is at when they hear the sound. i.e. a concert hall, a car, at home etc.

Sound and Distance

All sound interaction has forms of distance.

1. Formal. For example, formal speaking to an audience, like a presentation to an employer or customer.

2.Informal. i.e. speaking to a peer .

3. Personal. i.e. speaking to a friend family member.

4.Intimate. i.e. speaking to a close loved one.

The closer you are to a person or the more intimate you get with speaking to someone the lower the volume is. Or the more people tend to whisper.

Sound as Semiotics

Semiotics is the study of signs. Signs for example could be road signs, star signs, painting, photos,  text , sound and body language.

The concept of sound as semiotics is argued by Roland Barthes, in the late sixties with his book/ essays called  mythologies.

Barthes argues that images, music and text applies to sound as well as the visual imagery.

The Signifier- Signified- Sign (triad)

 The Triad is applicable to sound and noise.

During class we participated in an exercise which played a sound clip of historical news and a sound clip famous song from the same year. The class had to then figure out who or what the news was and who was it about also the name of the artist, song and year.

The class soon realised that events can trigger sounds and vice versa.  Sounds can trigger memories and emotions.  For example if a rugby team was going for the final winner take all match  before the match the coach played loud, upbeat music the team will react in a positive manner.  The team will get psyched up for the match mentally believing they can beat the other team.  This can go both ways if the music changes to a low beat tune it will have an adverse effect on the team.

Sound is most associated  by Avant garde. This refers to creative people, musicians, artists who  wish to break free from the “norm” or the main stream culture. Before time- Ahead of time.

An example of a none main stream musician is Christian Marclay who is said to be one of the first Dj’s . Marclay decided he wanted to create music people did not want to hear. He would scratch vinyl  records to get a beat. One of his most famous sounds with a political message is the sound and visual of a guitar being trailed behind a moving car. The political message was that this type of thing used to happen to black people.

Sound is an art form. It can be changed into art format very easily.  If we look at professor Paul Moore’s sounds of the lymbian desert we can see that any sound even rocks, telephone wires etc can be put together and create an interesting and surprising composition. Also the composition of The River Sings (Foyle) we can hear how a river can be made into sound art and how it always sounds different.

“There is no such thing as silence” John Cage.


Understanding The Virtual Space

First of all the class viewed a selective attention video which was created by Harvard, psychologist,  Christopher Chabris. The video interacted with the audience by asking us to count how many times the people in the white shirts passed the ball to each other. This is not as simple as it sounds as there is also a team wearing black shirts passing another ball between themselves. There where fifteen passes between the white team but what fifty percent of people do not notice is the Gorilla walking through their field of vision. People who did not notice the Gorilla are said to be attentive or have selective attention, which means they solely concentrated on the number of passes and therefore did not notice the Gorilla walking past.  This can be good and bad thing for example these people concentrate solely on the task given to them, but when applied to everyday tasks such as driving whilst on the phone they will not notice hazards around them.

Whereas the people who did notice the Gorilla are said to be good at multitasking (Still not a good idea to talk on the phone whilst driving though). This means that the people who were able to count the number of passes and notice the Gorilla are better at everyday multitasking. Although this can also lead to lack of attention to detail.   

Data and The Internet.

Next we were advised to deactivate our social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter because the N.S.A  The National Security Agency gather everyone’s personal information of these social networking sites and selling said information to spam companies for money. Makes you wonder why the data protection act even exists and rethink what information you put online. It’s always good to have your own spam email address.

Internet Vs Interweb

The internet is the infrastructure or the metaphorical highway or the road itself. Whereas  the Interweb is the actual/ creative content i.e. a nice Ford Mustang driving up that highway. Highway would bare without its cars.  The Interweb is completely user submitted content.

The Internet was first created in the early sixties by M.I.T, the American military.  This was the cold war era, the internet was used to share information from one friendly government to another or a communications network to use even if the telephone networks where down.

Technology took a big step forward during the “hippy movement” and the creation of Techno sound (Grateful Dead). This was a time where many people experimented with acid to open their minds. Even universities (not knowing the dangers/side effects of the drug at the time) carried out acid experiments on people 1968-1972. A journalist/novelist Ken Kesey frequently volunteered himself for such tests and often threw acid parties whilst listening to the Grateful Dead. Kesey believed that it was the acid that expanded his mind inspired him to write his best seller “One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest.” Which explains alot.

The first Google was created by Stewart Brand another acid user. This first Google was paper based and called the Whole Earth Catalogue (today the book is worth two thousand cash).   The first issue was only sixty-one pages which covered issues such as communication, shelter, crafts etc. In the up and coming years the catalogue was released twice a year with an extra three hundred and thirty nine pages.  The catalogue is the first of its kind to “establish a relationship between information technology, economic activity, and alternative forms of community that would outlast the counterculture itself and become a key feature in the digital world.”  The Whole Earth Catalogue inspired Steve Jobs to create Apple (Stay Hungry, Stay Stupid). The idea was to create a more personal internet, which lead to West side, East side split. The West side wanted to create a more personal interface such as the PC. Whereas the East side was Microsoft and artificial intelligence. 


Cyberspace is an alternative reality/space or a space to be filled, coined by Brand.  On a visit to Stanford University Stewart discovered the computer game pong. He was so astounded that the game was created without the aid of acid he quit using.  Stewart decided that the internet could be used to help people  and create a virtual reality or online communities. The Whole Earth Catalogue was then digitised and its name was changed to W.E.L.L, Whole Earth Lectronic Link.

The idea for a virtual community was coined by Howard Rheingold, this was an alternative way of thinking from the likes of Microsoft.

Electronic Frontier

Technology has come a long way from the early sixties. With inventions such as Iproducts, the Samsung smart watch which was alot to be desired. Keep a look out for the Finally the most anticipated release of Google glasses in 2014.

Brand introduced the first hackers conference in 1984 in California.  Stewart believed that hackers where the” wizards of the electrical age”  the hackers rewarded him by posting his bank details online.